Question: What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia?

Contents

Analysis of the 2016 Census of Population and Housing shows that the number of same-sex couples in Australia represents around 1 in 100 (0.9%) of all couple families (either with or without children) (ABS 2017).

Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2022. Available from Available from Discussion of general trends in smoking prevalence in Australia overlooks population sub-groups that have much higher smoking rates, or for whom smoking causes unique or disproportionate problems.

Individuals with lower socio-economic status or lower educational attainment are more likely to smoke, as discussed in Sections and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, discussed in the preceding section and in detail inalso show substantially higher smoking rates than the rest of the population, as do members of some other culturally and linguistically diverse communities see. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare reports data on births in Australia through the National Perinatal Data Collection.

Since 1991, it has collected information concerning both the mother including demographic profile and matters relating to the pregnancy and birth What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? the baby such as sex, birth-weight and other health indicators. In 2019, about one-fifth of women who reported smoking during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy did not continue to smoke after 20 weeks.

The Australian National Perinatal Data Collection also reported that women who smoked during pregnancy tended to have a later first antenatal visit, and one fewer antenatal care visit during their pregnancy, on average. There are significant variations in the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in certain sub-populations, reflecting smoking behaviour in these groups within the wider population. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among women with Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander backgrounds is reported in Section 8.

Other research has shown that women without a partner, the less educated, those with lower socio-economic statusand women with a psychiatric disorder are more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Large differences in smoking during pregnancy were observed by ethnicity, highest level of educational attainment, and by state.

Mirroring smoking prevalence across the general population, rates of smoking during pregnancy also vary by state and territory. It can be seen that in all years, smoking during pregnancy was highest in the Northern Territory and lowest in the Australian Capital Territory. Rates of smoking were also high in Tasmania and Queensland relative to the national average over this ten-year period, the decline in smoking during pregnancy was greatest for Tasmania 6.

Large declines were also observed in South Australia 8. For most jurisdictions, the majority of the decline in smoking prevalence during pregnancy occurred between 2010 and 2013. An overall decline continued for most states and territories during 2019, with the exception of New South Wales. Source: Australian Institute for Health and Welfare.

Australia's mother and babies data visualisations. Canberra: Australian Government, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020. Available from: The health consequences of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are discussed in Sections, and. For information on issues related to quitting smoking during pregnancy, refer to.

Individuals with mental health conditions have a substantially higher prevalence of smoking and those who smoke tend to smoke more heavily than the general population. Data from the 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia?

that Australian adults 18 years and over who reported having been diagnosed or treated for mental illness in the past year were twice as likely to be a current smoker than those who had not been diagnosed or treated in the past year 24. These excessive smoking rates contribute to higher levels of tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality among people with mental illness.

For a detailed overview of smoking and quitting What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? people with mental illness, see. Single parenthood is associated with social and economic disadvantage, and is discussed further in and. The 2016 Australian National Census estimates that there were more than 116,000 homeless people in Australia at that time.

Melbourne-based research has shown a greatly elevated prevalence of smoking among homeless people 77%with those who are street homeless reporting higher rates of 93%. For further discussion refer to and.

In 2018, two in three 66%—69% prison entrants aged 18—44 were daily smokers, compared with just one in seven 14%—16% people of the same age in the general community. Only 13% of prison entrants reported never having smoked, while 10% were ex-smokers. Similar trends are observed internationally; a systematic review found that rates of smoking among people experiencing incarceration exceed community rates 1.

In 2018, 75% of all Australian prison entrants reported being current smokers, 67% reported being daily smokers, and 85% reported having smoked at some stage in their life. The average age of taking up smoking was 14, although several prisoners reported that they began smoking as young as three. Upon entry, female prison entrants 86% were more likely than male prison entrants 74% to report they were current smokers.

Entrants aged 18—24 were most likely to report being current smokers 80%with those aged 45 and over the least likely at 62%. In 2011, the National Preventative Health Strategy identified the prison population as a priority area for future interventions see and. Similarly, the 2012-2018 National Tobacco Strategy recognised prisons as an important setting for tobacco control efforts and stated that continued leadership is required to reduce the prevalence of smoking among prisoners, and to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke among prisoners and staff working in correctional settings.

As of 2021, all Australian states and territories have introduced or announced intentions to introduce complete smoking bans in prisons, except Western Australia. In 2018, only about one-third 30% of dischargees from prisons that had banne d smoking said they were current smokers, compared with more than half 56% of dischargees from prisons which allowed smoking.

High rates of smoking relapse following release from smoke-free prisons is covered in. The elevated smoking rates in the prison population reflects the overwhelmingly disadvantaged backgrounds of inmates. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, people who use illicit drugs, and the less educated are substantially over-represented in the prison system, as are those suffering mental illness.

For an overview of smoking bans in Australian prisons, seeand for an overview of interventions tailored to prison populations, see 1. In 2017, of the secondary school students who reported having used marijuana, amphetamines, hallucinogens or ecstasy, more than one-third said that they had used tobacco concurrently 39%, 36%, 38% and 42%, respectively.

Analysis of data from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey shows the prevalence of drug use among adult smokers and non-smokers in 2019—see Table 1. Controlling for age and sex, current smokers were about six times more likely to have used marijuana in the past 12 months than non-smokers, and about four and a half times more likely to have used any illicit drug including marijuana in the year prior to the survey. Source: Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer analysis of 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey data.

Most individuals with substance use disorders What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? tobacco as well. International and Australian, research shows that in this population, smoking rates range from 68% to 90% see also. A 2015 international systematic review found that smoking rates among people in addiction treatment are more than double those of people with similar demographic characteristics. The relationship between tobacco and other drug use is complex, and may be subject to genetic and neurobiological determinants, as well as psychological and social influences.

Similarly, smoking—especially daily smoking—is much more common among adults who meet the criteria for alcohol dependence, or who report drinking in ways that could be harmful or hazardous. Source: Greenhalgh E and Scollo M. Alcohol and tobacco use in Victoria and Australia: Results from the 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Melbourne: Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria, 2021. Daily smoking rates were also much higher: 16. While both daily and current smoking prevalence significantly decreased between 2016 and 2019 among heterosexual people, no such change was seen among gay or bisexual people.

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Relevant news and research For recent news items and research on this topic, click. Last updated April 2022 References 1. The health consequences of smoking. A report of the Surgeon General. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Laws P, Abeywardana S, Walker J, and Sullivan E. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Lu Y, Tong S, and Oldenburg B. Determinants of smoking and cessation during and after pregnancy. Health Promot Int, 2001; 16 4 :355—65. Mohsin M and Bauman A.

Socio-demographic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation among 426,344 pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia. Flick L, Cook C, Homan S, McSweeney M, Campbell C, et al. Persistent tobacco use during pregnancy and the likelihood of psychiatric disorders.

American Journal of Public Health, 2006; 96:1799—807. Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy: United States, 2016.

What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018. Monitoring changes in smoking and quitting behaviours among Australians with and What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? mental What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? over 15 years. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2021.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Data tables: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 - 8. Priority population groups supplementary tables. Lawrence D, Holman C, and Jablensky A, Duty to Care. Preventable physical illness in people with mental illness.

Perth: The University of Western Australia; 2001 14. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Data tables: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 - 2.

Tobacco smoking chapter, Supplementary data tables. Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2018. Kermode M, Crofts N, Miller P, Speed B, and Streeton J. Health indicators and risks among people experiencing homelessness in Melbourne, 1995-1996. Awofeso N, Testaz R, Wyper S, and Morris S. Smoking prevalence in New South Wales correctional facilities, 2000. Tobacco Control, 2001; 10 1 :84—5. Smoking and its correlates in an Australian prisoner population. Drug Alcohol Rev, 2006; 25 4 :343—8.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions. Epidemiol Rev, 2018; 40 1 :82-95. Australia: the healthiest country by 2020. National Preventative Health Strategy, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia 2009. Intergovernmental Committee on Drugs, National Tobacco Strategy 2012-2018. Baker A, Ivers R, Bowman J, Butler T, What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia? F, et al. Where there's smoke, there's fire: high prevalence of smoking among some sub-populations and recommendations for intervention.

What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia?

Drug Alcohol Rev, 2006; 25:85—96. Guerin N and White V. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. National Drug Strategy Household Survey, 2019. Last update: Viewed Available from:. Smoking and mental illness: A population-based prevalence study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2000; 284 20 :2606—10.

Reichler H, Baker What is the prevalence of LGBT in Australia?, Lewin T, and Carr V. Smoking among in-patients with drug-related problems in an Australian psychiatric hospital. Drug Alcohol Rev, 2001; 20:231—7. Degenhardt L and Hall W. The relationship between tobacco use, substance-use disorders and mental health: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

Guydish J, Passalacqua E, Pagano A, Martinez C, Le T, et al. An international systematic review of smoking prevalence in addiction treatment. Addiction, 2016; 111 2 :220—30. Williams J and Ziedonis D. Addressing tobacco among individuals with a mental illness or an addiction. Kalman D, Morissette S, and George T.

Co-morbidity of smoking in patients with psychiatric and substance use disorders. American Journal on Addictions, 2005; 14:106—23. Greenshalgh E and Scollo M. Alcohol and tobacco use in Victoria and Australia: Results from the 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Melbourne: Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria, 2021.

Tobacco Use at the Intersection of Sex and Sexual Identity in the U. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2021; 60 3 :415—24.

Praeger R, Roxburgh A, Passey M, and Mooney-Somers J. The prevalence and factors associated with smoking among lesbian and bisexual women: Analysis of the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Int J Drug Policy, 2019; 70:54—60.

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