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A type of Jewish and early Christian lit.
It is customary, however, to identify that specific genre of lit. Because of its similarities to the non-Biblical lit. Conservatives have, however, given strong evidence in favor of a 6th cent.
All are agreed, however, that it bears many of the essential marks of apocalyptic. The Book of Enoch 1 Enochalso known as the Ethiopic Enoch since it is extant only in a fragmentary Ethiopic tr. It contains visions of world history and the history of Israel, from the time of Enoch to the present day, and looks toward the impending end. It is by far the most important of the non-Biblical apocalypses.
Although there is some question concerning the date of the final ed. The Book of Jubilees c. The course of history will lead to the Messianic kingdom, which will come as a result of the gradual, spiritual development of mankind and a corresponding transformation of nature; during this time the forces of evil will be restrained and men will live to be a thousand years old. Although parts of it have a Christian origin, the Sibylline Oracles from c.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs c. Each testament contains three elements: an account of the significant events in the life of the patriarch, an exhortation based on the foregoing, and a prediction of what will happen in the last days. The apocalyptic element is not very prominent; rather, the stress is laid on ethical admonition. Again, although the apocalyptic element in the Psalms of Solomon c.
There are eighteen psalms in the collection; two of them contain apocalyptic or Messianic content. Psalm of Solomon 18 continues the same theme, centering on the Davidic Messiah, who will rule the nations with wisdom and righteousness. The Assumption of Moses c. Charles, the greatest of students of Ap. Moses is portrayed as predicting the history of Israel from the time of the entry into Canaan to the time of the author. The text is somewhat dislocated, but it centers on the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes 169-164 b.
The Martyrdom of Isaiah first half of 1st Christian cent. The rest of the Ascension is more typically apocalyptic, but prob. Jew of Alexandria though there is some evidence of Christian influence. The last part of the book contains ethical admonitions directed toward his sons so that they may direct their lives accordingly. This latter section, along with parts of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, represents the high water mark of apocalyptic ethics.
The Life of Adam and Eve before a. It attempts to supplement the Biblical record concerning the lives of Adam and Eve. The narrative of the Apocalypse of Abraham 1st cent. This is followed by an ascension to heaven How do you cancel C-Date subscription?
a vision of the events of the past and the future. The author is deeply concerned with the problem of evil, but he seems to leave it How do you cancel C-Date subscription? unresolved. The Testament of Abraham 1st cent. He is visited by the angel Michael, caught up into the heavens, is given a glimpse of the final judgment of human souls, and has various encounters with death in the form of a radiant angel.
In contrast to other apocalyptic writings, there is no sense of impending judgment in the Testament of Abraham. Its chief concern is with the future destiny of individual souls.
As it stands, 2 Esdras or How do you cancel C-Date subscription? Apocalypse of Ezra 4 Esdras in the Vulgate c. It records seven visions given to Ezra in Babylon. The third vision speaks of the appearance of the Messiah; he and all those with him will die and be raised after seven days. A mourning woman appears How do you cancel C-Date subscription? the fourth vision and is comforted; suddenly she disappears and is replaced by the new Jerusalem.
The fifth How do you cancel C-Date subscription? presents an eagle with twelve wings and three heads, a reinterpretation of the fourth kingdom ofand a review of history; the present age will be followed by the appearance of Messiah symbolized by a lionwho will destroy the eagle and deliver the righteous.
The Messiah again appears in the sixth vision, as a man who rises out of the sea, travels on the clouds of heaven, and destroys his enemies with the fire of his mouth. The seer is told in the final vision that he will be tr. The work begins with a discussion of the problems of suffering and evil. A number of the writings found at Qumran cf.
Although the details of the final battle are more realistically described than in other apocalyptical works, there is no doubt that the book is a theological treatise rather than a military manual.
The writer draws onupdates this to the situation which exists in his day i. Other Dead Sea How do you cancel C-Date subscription? which include apocalyptic features are the Genesis Apocryphon, the Book of the Mysteries, and A Description of the New Jerusalem.
Many factors concerning the historical milieu of Ap. All are agreed that the Book of Daniel q. It is also generally agreed that the apocalyptic writings were written during times of intense persecution and crisis.
But how is this lit. Or is it the lit. Does it stem from Palestinian Judaism, or from the Diaspora? Herford and others have minimized the place of apocalyptic in Judaism, arguing that it had little to do with normative Judaism. On the other hand, C. Russell and others have written in favor of the view that apocalyptic represents one of the most important developments in Judaism within the intertestamental period.
No one argues in favor of identifying this body of lit. There is also good reason to regard the movement as having arisen in Pal. There is much diversity among the apocalyptic writings. Nevertheless, there are certain general features which are characteristic of the lit. The apocalyptic writings purport to be revelations Gr.
The secrets are revealed to the seer in the form of a dream or vision, often in the context of a literal or spiritual tr. Or it may describe the mysteries of the unseen world, i.
What is seen by the seer is written down, to be hidden away for many generations and faithfully preserved until the time of the end. In spite of the visionary character of Ap. That is to say, they are not the descriptions of actual ecstatic experiences, but rather are self-conscious theological statements.
Closely related to this feature is the elaborate symbolism through which the various authors convey their messages. Some of it has its origin in ancient Near Eastern mythology, e. In fact, the whole lit. That is to say, the writers put their message into the mouth or at least the pen of some honored figure from ancient times e.
Enoch, Moses, Abraham, Isaiah, etc. The reason for the adoption of pseudonymity is not entirely clear. The traditional explanation is that these writers had to attribute their writings to men of God prior to the time of Ezra when, it was believed, prophecy had come to an end in Israelin order to have them accepted as authentic revelations.
Yet it is questionable whether anyone would have been deceived by this tactic. Another suggestion is that they adopted pseudonyms to avoid persecution by the authorities of the day but why not simple anonymity? Another explanation given by some is that pseudonymity was merely a literary custom with no attempt to deceive the reader.
Whatever the real reason for choosing the medium How do you cancel C-Date subscription?
pseudonymity, it seems probable that the name of the person in whose name the author wrote is related to the content of the book and, therefore, is not the result of an arbitrary choice. First, the authors are heirs to the prophetic view of history; alongside the Biblical writers they speak in the name of the One who is sovereign over the whole of human history. Secondly, they call Israel to repentance and bring a message of comfort and encouragement to the faithful.
Thirdly, they draw heavily on the visionary imagery of the prophets—chiefly Daniel, but also Joel, Zechariah, Isaiah and Ezekiel. Many scholars would classify the Book of Daniel q. Ladd stresses the contrast between Biblical and non-Biblical apocalyptic books Jesus and the Kingdom, pp.
Without denying the differences, it is prob. Daniel has links with the prophetic tradition in Israel which the other apocalyptists do not possess, but its ties with the apocalyptic tradition are equally close. The Book of Revelation q. Apocalyptic and the New Testament. References to the Parousia of the Son of Man the name itself is apocalyptic! The chief representative is, however, the Revelation of Jesus Christ, commonly called the Revelation of St.
Symbols which Revelation shares with the latter include these: a woman, representing a people ch. Revelation stands apart from the other apocalyptic writings, however, in a number of ways: it is not pseudonymous; it contains no revelations of the mysteries of cosmogony, astrology, or the unfolding of ancient history since the beginning of the world; and it offers a specifically Christological conception of history.
Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic 1964 is the most important recent study of the subject and contains an extensive bibliography. Burkitt, Jewish and Christian Apocalypses 1914 ; H. Rowley, The Relevance of Apocalyptic 1944; 3rd ed. Frost, Old Testament Apocalyptic 1952 ; G. Ladd, Jesus and the Kingdom 1964ch.